Max Spencer, Space Inventor
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He attended high school in Budapest, and obtained his diploma as a mechanical engineer at the Budapest Technical University. He worked in France as a junior engineer designing and developing Tesla's induction motor. Following these successful achievements at home he worked in Italy, later returning to Budapest to work at the Ganz factory where he became the managing director. One of the sensations of the summer season in was a small electric train carrying the guests of a French lakeside hotel at Evian Les Bains to and fro the close-by medicinal spring.
The motor wagon was supplied by the Budapest-based Ganz Factory. A total of 30 percent of this km long line ran through tunnels and half of it ran along curves. His research focused on creating large energy systems, in which electric current generated for lighting and industrial use, were also used for electric haulage. He worked out a revolutionary system of phase-changing haulage, whereby locomotives were powered by the standard, period, single-phase alternating current used in the national energy supply system.
Irinyi played an important part in the revolution of and After assisting his brother with drafting the 12 points outlining the reasons for Hungary's desire to break with Austria, Louis Kossuth the Father of Hungarian Democracy and leader of the revolution assigned him to direct the manufacture of guns and gunpowder, and put him in charge of supervising the national factories.
After the failed revolution he was sentenced to jail. When he won freedom he retired from political life and continued his scientific work exclusively. In the realm of common knowledge only his association with matches is remembered. Yet Irinyi was one of the first people to spread general knowledge about the new chemistry, and played a significant part in the development of the Hungarian technical language of chemistry.
His primary interests are in the study of creativity, especially in art; socialization; the evolution of social and cultural systems; and the intrinsically rewarding behavior in work and play settings. The Hungarian-born polymath and currently the Davidson Professor of Management at the Claremont Graduate University, in Claremont, California has been thinking about the meaning of happiness since a child in wartime Europe. His research and theories in the psychology of optimal experience seek to find out how creativity has been a force in our lives and have revolutionized psychology , and have been adopted in practice by national leaders such as Bill Clinton and Tony Blair as well as top members of the global executive elite who run the world's major corporations.
In the pages of Newsweek, President Clinton named him one of his favorite authors. Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich put his work on the reading list for a political planning committee. And corporations and cultural institutions - from Volvo in Sweden to the Chicago Park District to the political leadership of Austria - have seized upon his ideas and how to apply them because his findings have much to offer anyone interested in improving his or her understanding of how people can perform optimally in every area of life.
He did exhaustive analysis of the data collected and found that certain traits are common to all creative people. He explored states of "optimal experience" when people report feelings of concentration and deep enjoyment and showed that what makes experience genuinely satisfying is a state of consciousness called "flow. Csikszentmihalyi suggests methods for all of us to nurture these traits to explore and expand our creative potential. He argues that creativity needs to be cultivated not only in traditionally creative fields like sciences and arts, but also in business, government, and education.
For the past twenty years he has been funded by the US Public Health Service and the Spencer Foundation for research and studies on topics related to "flow. He has been a Senior Fulbright Fellow and currently sits on several boards, including the Board of Advisors for the Encyclopedia Britannica. He has been on numerous TV networks and has been involved in various segments of "Nova. It is an exceptional moment in the history of a nation and of science as well, when several of its masterminds have been able to work almost simultaneously and at the same place of work.
Their names are mentioned together by historiography. The great triad of Otto Titusz Blathy, Miksa Deri, and Karoly Zipernowsky was connected by the transformer, their revolutionary invention presented in Besides the transformer, however, other joint works were produced during their years of creativity.
However, all had to use a local generator, as there was no method available for transporting electric power. This seriously handicapped the more widespread use of electric power, and experiments were conducted in many places to solve this problem. The first practical solution was found in Budapest, at the Ganz factory.
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In , after one year of research and development, the Triad invented a device of two coils with a closed iron core, with variable ratio induction, which they called a transformer, the name used ever since. This device was the basis of alternative current AC power distribution networks. Such a network was installed at the National General Exhibition in Budapest May to November where the system worked faultlessly without interruption. During the following decades, the Ganz factory manufactured and installed several hundred power distribution systems using their own components.
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In they installed the Rome-Cerchi steam power plant, the first power plant built to supply a large city with electricity. The Ganz factory produced electrical equipment for the power network of the city of Rome over several decades. Even as a young pupil, Blathy excelled by his affinity to Mathematics, and his teacher often called him in front of his senior school-mates to solve the problems that they had not been able to cope with. From this small town of Tata, he went to the technical university of Vienna, where he received his engineer's degree in He discovered the practical application of the connection between the magnetic field and the excitation creating it.
This led to an improved design of DC engines.
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From the experiments he developed a science of then unforeseeable practical benefits. In , he designed an automatic mercury voltage regulator for direct-current dynamos as his first patent. In the years to come, the generators of several current-generating plants in Italy were operated by this regulator. From on, on the basis of another patent of his, high-precision watt meters were produced. These were the first instruments with which the power of alternating current could be measured for any phase shift between voltage and current.
He immediately joined the work, and as early as , the alternating-current transformer, the revolutionary invention of the great triad was presented; power transmission even to great distances could be solved with it. The new system was presented at the National Exhibition in Budapest in The entire area of the exhibition was illuminated by alternating current, distributed at 1, Volt primary voltage, of a frequency of 70 Hz, utilizing 1, incandescent lamps and 75 small shell-type transformers.
It was an immense success. It was there that he observed that the parameters of the exciting coils of the machines to be produced were established on the basis of empirically set charts. He did not stay in America for a long time. Work in the Ganz Works was awaiting him. Between and he was engaged in designing of the Duna and Tisza river control systems. At the same time he studied electrotechnics. In he started working at the Ganz factory as an engineer.
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Later on he became the factory's director, at a time when a remarkably talented professional team worked in the factory. Along with fellow Hungarian, Zipernowsky, they developed a self-excited AC alternating current generator during that year, which they began manufacturing in From he organized and equipped the electric power station in Vienna. Between and he worked on his compensated DC machine. Two years later he designed the repulsion motor which was later named after him.
These brush-type motors were mass-produced and used all over the world. Founder of heavy-current electrical engineering. Born in Vienna, he completed his studies in Budapest. During his Technical University years he gave many lectures on the subject of electronics.
Since Ganz was the first factory in Hungary engaged in electricity, it thus became his task to develop the power industry in Hungary. Under Zipernowsky's leadership the factory soon became the pioneer in AC electronics. In the National Theatre of Budapest was fitted with lights by the Ganz company: this was the first alternating current, incandescent lighting system in Hungary the third theatre in the world.
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It is worth mentioning that one of their AC generators, the "giant steam lighting machine", illuminated the Keleti Railway Station for thirty years. In the s scientists were often engaged in working on the distribution of electric light. Edison had solved the problem of carrying light economically to short distances with DC direct current. Historical credit is due to Zipernowsky and his colleagues for developing the economical transmission and distribution of light to long distances.
It should also be mentioned that AC or DC was not a settled question from the start.
Edison, who backed DC, was proved wrong, the young Hungarian engineers were right. The state of the art electric equipment they produced was admired by the trade all over the world. Western Electrician, Chicago, May 25th, In Zipernowsky acquired the position of lecturer in the department of power electronics at the Technical University, and became a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. From he was active as the president of the Hungarian Electronic Association.
His patent, of worldwide significance, still serves up to the present day as the basis for the industrial process used throughout the world. By this process the opiate alkaloids are extracted from the dry capsules of the mature poppy Papaver somniferum plant poppy straw. Kabay's breakthrough in produced a commercially feasible morphine extraction process. During the Second World War, poppy straw processing began under German control as a source of opium during the Allied blockade.
Since then, refinements to extraction techniques, and agricultural development have greatly increased yields, so that today more than 50 per cent of the world's legal annual morphine demand of about tons is derived from this source which, in some countries such as Australia, is a highly mechanized agricultural procedure.
The government of Tasmania acknowledged his impact on Australian agriculture with a plaque located atVictoria Parade, Poppy Memorial, Devonport, The Inscription reads: "Janos Kabay.
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Janos Kabay invented and developed the process used to extract morphine directly for the poppy straw. The Tasmanian poppy industry is based on further developments of this process. Made the first effective attack on bacteria, and discovered the cause of puerperal fever, which was killing thousands of mothers. Semmelweis insisted that doctors disenfect their hands before childbirth.
Ironically, he too, fell to puerperal fever due to an accidental infection. Semmelweis's practice earned widespread acceptance only years after his death, when Louis Pasteur confirmed the germ theory. In , a nervous breakdown or possibly Alzheimer's landed him in an asylum, where Semmelweis died of "injuries," at age The so-called Semmelweis reflex — a metaphor for a certain type of human behaviour characterized by reflex-like rejection of new knowledge because it contradicts entrenched norms, beliefs or paradigms — is named after Semmelweis, whose perfectly reasonable hand-washing suggestions were ridiculed and rejected by his contemporaries.
Sir William Sinclair writes, " It is the doctrine of Semmelweis which lies at the foundation of all our practical work today. He was a wood trader. Like many technically interested people in those years, he became increasingly fascinated by aviation, the great human adventure of the late 19th century. Schwartz studied the airship and came up with a novel idea.
With the very thin aluminum he used for insulating the balloon, the aluminum skeleton, and the propellers at the sides of the basket, he set the course for the airship's future development. He submitted his design to the Austro-Hungarian Defense Ministry in Vienna, which classified the proposal as "inextricable" and discarded the idea.
Schwartz invested all his money in further tests. The Prussians recognized the significance of the invention it used aluminum, the exciting new material and financed the making of the new airship.