Sous la Commune (Récits et souvenirs dun Parisien) (French Edition)

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Yazbek, Samar, 19 femmes. Les Syriennes racontent , traduit par E. Aubin-Boltanski et N. Chehayed, Paris, Editions Stock, Breaking Aleppo , Atlantic Council, Tokmajyan, Armenak. Hajjar, Abboud. Khaddour, Kheder. Keynote speech : Local and transnational reconfigurations of the Syrian society. Syrians under the kafala system: anthropological perspectives on a social fragmentation foretold. Panel 2. Economic Dynamics and Humanitarian Assistance in the context of uncertain reconstruction.

Joseph Daher European University Institute. Ahmad Mhidi Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue.

شرقية وغربية على الخريطة

Territories of Revolt, Combat and Refuge. Julie Bernath Swiss Peace. One of the great monastic builders of the Mont , he shares with Robert the glory of being also its great librarian. He bought numerous volumes and in order to classify the hundred of property titles of the monastery in orderly and methodical fashion, he created himself a register that was called Quanandrier or Rented Paper, with another book that was called the White book because of the colour of its cover and in which he had transcribed all the originals of the donations to the abbey. The latter register has disappeared.

He is the architect of the Cartulary. The Cartulary is situated in the North-West conrner of the Merveille: it consists of the three small rooms on top of each other: the first alone is vaulted; the cloister, in its western part, leads unto the second floor of this rather small room. At the moment the cartulary that tourists do not have access to, forms a museum at the top floor where some objects are assembled that were discovered during the repair works.

Note: Muniment room is one of the senses of the French word chartrier cartulary. It can also designate the contents of this room, i. The first I opened turned out to be ancient manuscripts on vellum, of a careful writing and more or less well conserved; some of them had gold and illuminated initials; in a few others this gold had aroused the greed of the idle or of children: it had been cut out by means of a pair of scissors.

La commune de Paris de l'utopie à la mémoire

The ordinary writing had tempted nobody and it had suffered no other wounds than those of time. We passed several hours in repairing them and to make an inventory and we found the precious Cartulary which we had feared lost. Note: Cog.

To falsify or feign; to flatter; to wheedle. Fiat in Domino! Let it be in the Lord. Perhaps short for Fiat in nomine Domini. Let it be, in the name of the Lord. Fiat, Fiat in Domino. Note: See 53 o. New gods of another origin, social gods, we could say, have taken the most important role. The reason may be that, no more than those of ancient Latium , the gods of Gaul had a clearly defined personality.

They were conceived as vague spirits, abstract powers of physical phenomena, more or less conventional geniuses of social groups.


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They had neither face nor body. The brenn who pillaged Delphi laughed a lot, it seems, at the idea that men of marble or bronze could represent the gods of the Greeks. Neither did he understand that one could imagine being able to lock up divinity in the cella of a temple. In its very vagueness, the conception that the Gauls had of their gods was vaster vaster and more grandiose than the imagination of the Greeks.

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Le feu consume le tout. It is there that they decided the common business of the land. After these meetings, general or local, the judge became priest again. For the health of the city or the nation he made solemn sacrifices.

Étienne-Léon de Lamothe-Langon

Immense wicker mannequins were filled with live men, preferably criminals, but when they did not have any, innocent people. The fire killed them all. It was in the oak woods that they had their sanctuaries and they did not do their sacred rites without oak leaves. They believed that the appearance of the mistletoe reveals the presence of the god of the tree on which it grows. When they found it on an oak, they cut it with great ceremonies. They chose the sixth day of the moon because they believed that on that day the star possesses all its vigour and it has not completed half of its journey.

Under the sacred tree they prepare a banquet and a sacrifice; they bring two white steers whose horns have not yet carried a yoke.

Mission principale

A priest in a white robe climbs the tree: with a golden sickle he cuts it and the mistletoe is caught in a white sheet. The druids then kill the victims while asking the god that the mistletoe may bring happiness to all to whom he has given it. Also they confided the education of their children to the druids, even of those not destined to become priests. In each city and maybe also in centers away from the cities, the druids led real scholastic establishments.

They are the masters who shape the youth of Gaul. The education they give consists of the learning by heart by the pupils of a great number of verses. Aengus divides the Irish Saints into three classes. The first class, extending from the year to , begins with St. Patrick, and numbers Saints, all bishops and founders of Churches. Patrick; one Mass; one mode of celebration; one tonsure from ear to ear. The second class, extending from the year to , counts Saints. The third class, extending from the year to , numbers Saints, comprising bishops, priests, and laymen.


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Patrick [St Aengus] wrote five books on the Saints of Ireland [ In the whole island, sometimes there were only a few bishops, and they concealed in their hiding-places ; the priests, who succeeded to land in Ireland from the Continent, travelled through the country in disguise, preparing the dying, encouraging the living, and not unfrequently sealing their faith in their blood; our Cathedrals were converted into Protestant conventicles, and no church or chapel left through the land.

Patrick 4: Approbations Owing to continuous absence from home for a lengthened period, I could not acknowledge your kind letter and thank you for your gift earlier.

De la Commune aux massacres d’Arménie

In danger from the sea. Many of them were sick or crippled; that is why, in a quite large circle around Mont-Saint-Michel , hospitals, leproseries and poor houses had been erected. These hospitals, usually administered by clerics, could not shelter all who asked for help. The deplorable hygienic conditions in which the pilgrims live, contaminated the land. Leprosy especially ravaged the land and the leper houses where the unfortunates were treated, for better or worse, were always full.

Note: It. Note: See j. Les bords de celle ouverture sont un peu amincis, lisses au dehors comme au-dedans. Footnote [1] The head of saint Aubert is preserved still at the basilica of Saint-Gervais in Avranches. Tradition has it that the archangel saint Michael, while appearing to saint Aubert, put his finger in the skull of the the bishop who did listen to his commands.

This curious relic shows us that the bone of the skull and of the face are still attached. The rims of the opening are a bit thinner, smooth outside as inside. Nothing in the periphery of the opening, neither in the length of the bone, shows the action of an instrument, the application of something biting or corrosive. Everything is mooth as if this opening had been made without violence and a long time befor the death of the subject.

We can neither assume that this opening was the result of the application of a trephine of which it does not show the form. This miraculous water was sold in bottles to the pilgrims.